The national flag of Turkey was officially adopted on June 5, 1936.
The national flag of Turkey has a red background with an upright white crescent (the closed part of which faces the hoist side) and a white five-pointed star centered just outside the opening of the crescent. both are placed slightly to the left of the red background. The color red was adopted from the standard imperial color of the banner of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century. The red background of the Turkish flag represents the bloodshed of the soldiers who died during Turkey's War of Independence against the colonial powers of France, England, Greece and Russia. The flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors. The crescent and star serve as an insignia for the Turkic peoples. The crescent is used to honor the religious affiliation of the nation and its people, while the white star represents the diversity of Turkish cultures. The flag has a width to length ratio of 2:3.
History of the flag of Turkey
The story behind the Turkish flag is based on various theories. The oldest theory relates to the first Ottoman emperor Osman I, who reported seeing a crescent moon appear on the chest of a Sharia judge whose daughter he was seeking in marriage before exploding. The explosion was interpreted as the dynasty of Constantinople (Istanbul). The most popular theory is related to the Battle of Kosovo that led to the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, which reigned until the 19th century. The image is believed to be part of this historical event that established Turkey after the end of Ottoman rule. The flag's history dates back to the Ottoman period and includes several flags incorporating the crescent and star. The crescent and star on a red field were popular during the Ottoman Empire and were introduced in 1844. The traditional star had eight points, representing each of the eight states of the empire. In 1923, after the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey, this former flag of the Ottoman Empire was used. The flag was occasionally modified, most recently in 1936 the number of star points was reduced from eight to five.
Historical flags of Turkey
Ottoman Empire flag
symbols of turkey
The national coat of arms of Turkey
The coat of arms/national emblem of Turkey incorporates the crescent and star symbols of Islam in red and is an adaptation of the national flag.
- Anthem title: "National Anthem" ("Independence March")
- Music Composer: Osman Zeki Ungor (composer) and Edgar Manas (orchestration)
- Text: Mehmet Akif Ersoy
- Adoption Date: March 12, 1921
"İstiklal Marşı" ("Independence March") is the national anthem of Turkey. The music for the anthem was composed by Osman Zeki Ungor. The anthem was orchestrated by Edgar Manas. The lyrics of the anthem were written by Mehmet Akif Ersoy. The anthem was officially adopted as the national anthem on March 12, 1921. Of the total of 10 verses in the complete anthem, usually only the first two verses are sung.
"National Anthem" (Turkish)
Without fear! The red flag that floats in these twilights does not go out,
The last stove smoking on my land before it goes out.
He is the star of my nation, he will shine;
It's mine, it belongs to my nation.
Don't fall, let me be a victim, your face, oh shy crescent!
a rose for my heroic race; What is this violence, this Celal?
Our blood spilled then you will not legitimately...
That's right, the independence of my people who worship God.
I've been living free since eternity, I've been living free
What crazy would tie me up? I'm surprised.
I'm like a raging tide, trample me,
I will tear mountains apart, surpass the sky and keep on flowing.
steel truss wall,
I have a limit like my chest full of faith.
Nation, fear not! How can such a belief stifle
The one-toothed monster you call "civilization"?
Friend! Don't let scoundrels into my country
Barricade your body, not to mention this lewd herd.
The days that God has promised you will come
Who knows, maybe tomorrow, maybe in the near future.
Do not cross the places you step on saying "Earth", recognize it,
Think of the thousands of people who lay below without a shroud.
You are the son of a martyr, do not hurt yourself, shame on your father,
But don't let him steal my only true home to the world.
Who would not sacrifice himself for the heavenly homeland?
To sprout, the martyrs land closer to the şüheda.
Let Hüda take my soul, my soul, all my possessions
Don't make me a dwarf of my only home in the world.
The divine of my soul of you is this, but your effort:
Don't touch the chest of my temple with your infamous hand.
These Adhans, whose martyrdom is the basis of religion,
Eternal home in my moans.
Then I will prostrate myself a thousand times in ecstasy, if there are any I will use them.
Of every Ceriham, Divine, my age divorced and bloody,
My soul springs from the ground like a void
Then maybe my head is worth a throne of roses.
O glorious sickle at dawn upon thee as swinging!
Get all the bloodshed that's my due now.
Not you forever, not my race, izmihlal.
That's right, the freedom of my flag that lived free;
That's right, the independence of my people who worship God.
Without fear; For the crimson banner that waves proudly at this glorious dawn will not fade,
Before the last stove that burns in my homeland goes out.
For this is the star of my people, and it will shine forever;
It's mine; and he belongs only to my brave nation.
Don't frown, I beg you, oh shy croissant!
Smile on my heroic nation! Why the anger, why the anger?
Our blood that we shed for you will not be worthy otherwise;
Because freedom is the absolute right of my God-worshipping nation!
I was free from the start and always will be.
How crazy he puts chains on me! I don't agree with the idea!
I am like the raging tide; trample my shores and defeat my body,
I will rend mountains, traverse the expanses, and keep on pouring!
Western horizons may be bounded by walls of steel
But my borders are guarded by the mighty chest of a believer
let him howl! fear not! And he thinks: how will this fiery faith ever be extinguished,
Because of that battered one-toothed monster you call "civilization"?
My friend! Don't leave my homeland in the hands of villains!
Make your chest an armor and your body a bulwark! Stop this nefarious attack!
Because soon the joyful days of the divine promise will come;
Who knows? Maybe tomorrow? Maybe even before!
Don't think of the ground you walk on as bare earth, own up to it!
And think of the naked thousands that lie so noble beneath you.
You are the glorious son of a martyr. Shame on you, don't make your ancestors sad!
Do not give up this heavenly home, though worlds are promised to you.
Who wouldn't sacrifice their life for this paradisiacal country?
The martyrs would sprout just by squeezing the earth! Martyr!
May God take my life, my loved ones and all my possessions if he wants,
But don't let him steal my only true home in the world.
Oh glorious God, the only desire of my aching heart is that
The hand of a pagan must never touch the bosom of my holy temples.
These Adhans and their testimonies are the foundation of my religion,
And may its noble sound reign thunderous over my eternal home.
Because only then my tired tombstone, if there is one, will fall a thousand times in ecstasy,
And tears of blood will flow, oh Lord, from each wound of mine,
And my lifeless body will sprout from the earth as an eternal spirit,
Perhaps only then will I ascend in peace and finally reach Heaven.
As billowy and undulating as the bright dawn sky, oh glorious crescent,
So that our last drop of blood is finally blessed and worthy!
Neither you nor my relatives will ever be annihilated!
Because freedom is the absolute right of my eternally free flag;
Because independence is the absolute right of my pious nation!
The currency of Turkey is the Turkish lira.
The current official currency of Turkey is the Turkish lira (₺, TRY, TL). It is divided into 100 kurus. The inflation rate in Turkey is high compared to other developed countries, hence the fluctuation of the lira exchange rate. Turkey is one of the founding members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), whose goal is to improve the economic and social conditions of people around the world.
The Turkish lira coins currently in circulation were minted and issued in 2009 in denominations of 1 lira and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 kuruş.
The first Turkish lira coins were introduced in 1923, which featured Arabic inscriptions and were mostly aluminum bronze. The second Turkish lira coins were issued during the 2005 transition, with coins bearing the portrait of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The denominations of the 50 new kuru and 1 new lira minted in 2005 were somewhat similar to the eurozone €1 and €2, leading to the rings being reversed in the following 2009 issue.
The current Turkish lira banknotes are known as the E-9 issue group and were introduced in January 2009 by the central bank, which mints and distributes the currency. Banknotes are minted and distributed in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 lire. Banknotes are produced in different sizes and colors to reduce counterfeiting. The main distinguishing feature of the new banknotes is that each denomination represents a famous Turkish personality, rather than Turkey's geographical locations and architectural features.
Turkish lira banknote
Turkish lira currency
Historical coins of Turkey
The first version of the lira, known as the Ottoman lira, along with related currencies in the Middle East and Europe, had its roots in the ancient Roman unit of weight known as the pound, which referred to the Trojan pound of silver. In the Middle Ages, the use of the balance spread throughout the Republic of Turkey. The Ottoman lira became the official currency in 1844, replacing the kurus then in circulation.
There were two versions of the Turkish lira. The first Turkish lira was introduced by an official gazette in 1923, which was later annulled by the Democratic Party after World War II. The change was implemented through the second, third, and fourth editions with portraits of İsmet İnönü. The Turkish lira has been listed twice in the Guinness Book of Records (1995-1996 and 1999-2004) as the most devalued currency in the world. The currency had lost its value to the point that a gold lira coin could sell for 154,400,000 TL before the 2005 revaluation.
The second Turkish lira was introduced in 2005 when the Grand National Assembly of Turkey passed a law requiring the exclusion of the six zeros from the Turkish lira. The government introduced banknotes and coins with the portraits of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkey's first president, on the obverse of the banknotes and on the reverse of the coins.