10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (2023)

Types of shaft couplings have different designs and working principles, each of which has its own characteristics and certain applications to serve. In the next section, we will explain in detail the different types of axle couplings. Follow us on Linquip.

Linquip is the place to find all the information you need about links. You can contact our experts if you have any questions about axle couplings. If you want a basic understanding of these devices, you may be interested in reading the Linquip article titled "What is Industrial Coupling?“.

Have you ever used one of these devices? Linquip's selection ofcoupling productsit helps you find the link you are looking for. Do you have a specific type of axle coupling in mind? Linquip offers free access to all availableCoupling devices for saleonline. If you are looking for axle coupling prices, you can also use Linquip as a tool to send an inquiry or request a quote from anyoneCoupling suppliers and companiesfree.

What is axle coupling?

Couplings are mechanical elements that connect two drive elements, allowing movement from one to the other. Axles are commonly used as drive components. So a shaft coupling is a mechanical feature that connects two shafts to transmit torque from one end to the other while accepting misalignment. Axle couplings add mechanical stability, making it possible to tolerate axle misalignment. As a result of this coupling stability, irregular bearing wear, machine vibration and other mechanical problems caused by misalignment can be reduced. As a consequence of this coupling stability, irregular bearing wear, machine vibration and other mechanical problems caused by misalignment can be reduced.

Even when the motor and workpiece are tightly coupled and properly secured, minor displacements can occur over time due to temperature fluctuations and weather changes, which can lead to vibration and damage. Shaft couplings play an important role in reducing shock and vibration and allowing smooth rotation. In a broader sense, axle coupling can also refer to a mechanical system that connects adjacent sections or ends of objects.

Shaft couplings generally do not allow the shaft to disengage when in use, but there are torque limiting pairs that can slip or loosen if a torque limit is reached. Axle coupling selection, installation and repair will minimize maintenance time and costs. Both couplings have the same basic function: to transmit power, tolerate displacement and compensate for axial movement (end movement of the axles).

Shaft couplings are used primarily for four purposes: (1) power transmission, (2) joining misaligned shafts, (3) shock and friction reduction, and (4) ease of assembly and disassembly. There are also different types of axle couplings. We will learn them in the next section.

Types of axle couplings

Different types of shaft couplings are available depending on the application such as: Beam, Bellows, Chain, Jaw, Diaphragm, Disc, Grid, Oldham, Schmidt and Clamping. Let's read more about them:

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (1)

beam couplings

This coupling is one of the types of axle couplings. The beam coupling consists of one or more helical cuts in the body of the coupling and can accept parallel displacements up to 0.025 inches and angular displacements up to 7 degrees. They are primarily used in motion control applications for torques of less than 100 inch-pounds. Zero clearance designs are available to ensure accurate positioning of the drive and steering axes.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (2)

bellows couplings

Bellows couplings are also suitable for motion control applications. They are made of multiple turns of metal that provide high torsional stiffness, which is essential in positioning applications. Torsional stiffness limits the amount of parallel and angular misalignment they can tolerate compared to beam couplings, although the torque transfer capabilities are roughly comparable.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (3)

chain link

Chain Links are designed for power transmission applications and can transmit power up to hundreds of horsepower. The displacement allowances for angular and parallel displacement are typically 2 degrees and 0.015 inch respectively. Typical chain clutches use special sprockets and large double roller chains whose spacing allows the design to act as a flexible clutch.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (4)

jaw couplings

Along with the above types of shaft couplings, jaw couplings are another type. Consisting of pairs of multi-jaw hubs mated with elastomeric spiders, curved and straight jaw couplings are used for light power transmission and motion modulation applications. Knock-free torque transmission is possible thanks to the specification. The adjustment for parallel displacement is typically less than 0.01 inch and the angular displacement is less than 1 degree. Elastomeric spiders provide damping capability for these couplings, and spiders are often available in different durometers to provide specific characteristics for individual couplings. These clutches often run without lubrication and can transmit torques of up to 1,000 inch pounds.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (5)


Diaphragm clutches are often used in high power transmission applications such as turbo machinery. They typically use one or more flexible metal shaped discs to transfer power to an internal spacer shaft and then back to the machinery driven by another diaphragm cell. The lack of lubrication criteria is a significant improvement over gear couplings. Diaphragm clutches can transmit high torque and work at high speeds.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (6)

disc couplings

There are several types of axle couplings. Disc clutches have one or more discs and one or two stages that are bolted to the axle hub. They are power transmission devices that rely on the stability of their thin metal discs to transmit torque and tolerate angular misalignment. They are not very adept at handling parallel displacement. They can transmit high torques and are often used to couple high power motors, gas turbines, etc. to charges.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (7)

grid connections

Lattice couplings use spring-like link elements that are woven into slots machined into the coupling hubs. They can transmit a high torque while providing shock absorption and torsional vibration damping. They may not need any lubricant to function. They are suitable for power transmission and can withstand parallel displacement of up to 0.30 inches and angular displacement of approximately 14 degrees.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (8)

Oldham links

Due to their sliding element configuration, Oldham couplings can accommodate high degrees of parallel displacement. In current models, an elastomeric core piece is used instead of metal. Some manufacturers say that by using cylindrical sliders instead of rectangular sliders, they can withstand angular misalignment of up to 5 degrees.

10 types of axle couplings + functional principles | Linquip (9)

Schmidt couplings

Schmidt couplings are exclusively designed to work on staggered shafts. Strictly speaking, they are not adjustable couplings, which are built to withstand minor displacements on shafts that are theoretically parallel and square to each other. Acting more like a 1:1 gearbox in a smaller vacuum, Schmidt couplings are used in papermaking, printing and related devices.

clamping couplings

One- and two-piece rigid clamp couplings lack room for shaft misalignment and are common for slow or irregular shaft arrangements where alignment is not an issue. They are the most basic form of axle coupling and, apart from their lack of resistance to displacement, are low-cost systems without backlash.

What is the material used for the couplings?

Aluminum alloys and stainless steel are the most common materials used for these products, but they can also be made from acetal, martensitic steel and titanium.

We have discussed what the axle coupling is, as well as its purpose. We also explain different types of axle couplings. Each of these couplings has advantages and uses, so a thorough understanding of each is necessary if you want to maximize the life of the machine. These were basic descriptions of the main types of axle couplings that you are most likely to use.

Download PDF Types of axle couplings

It is also possible to download a PDF version of this document directly to your computer if you prefer. Just click on the link below to download the PDF file.

Download pdf

We hope we've helped shed some light on this topic and inspired you to keep learning. If you want to know more about a specific one or if you are not sure what type of axle coupling you need and which solution would be the best, it is better to consult an expert who can help you. Let us know in the comments sectionsign up for linquip. We will answer you.

Read more at Linquip

  • Flange Coupling Adapter: Working Principle and Applications
  • What is a sleeve coupling? Final guidance 2022
  • What is a fluid coupling? Diagram + Parts
  • What is disc coupling: A complete guide
  • What is network coupling? Essential details you need to know
  • A cheat sheet for types of pump couplings
  • Advanced Tutorial: Types of Rigid Couplings
  • Quick Guide to PVC Coupling Types
  • The complete library of loosely coupled types
  • The practical guide to clutch types in 2022
  • Gear coupling types – a basic but crucial overview of types


How many types of couplings are there? ›

Couplings fall into two main categories: Material Flexing and Mechanical Flexing. The material flexible types obtain their flexibility from stretching or compressing a resilient material, such as rubber, or from the flexing of thin metallic discs or grid.

What are the different types of axles? ›

Axles are essential components of any vehicle and come in three main types: front, rear, and stub. An axle is a rod or shaft that rotates the wheels and supports the weight of your vehicle. Axles are essential components of any vehicle and come in three main types: front, rear, and stub.

What are the functions of couplings? ›

A coupling is a mechanical element part that connects two shafts together to accurately transmit the power from the drive side to the driven side while absorbing the mounting error (misalignment), etc. of the two shafts.

What are the different types of axle assembly? ›

There are typically three types of axles – the rear, front and stub axle.
  • Rear axle. The rear axle is located between the differential and the driving wheels and transmits power between the two, according to The Engineers Post. ...
  • Front axle. ...
  • Stub axle.

What is the most commonly used coupling? ›

The resistance-capacitance coupling is, in short termed as RC coupling. This is the mostly used coupling technique in amplifiers. The constructional details of a two-stage RC coupled transistor amplifier circuit are as follows.

What are 4 axles? ›

For example, some high-performance sports cars may have a four-wheel-drive system, which means they have four axles, each providing power to one of the four wheels. Race cars may also have a different number of axles, depending on the type of race and the car's design.

What is the most common type of axle? ›

These are three most common axle shaft types:
  1. Semi-Floating Axle Shafts. This design has flange faces on both outer ends of the axle shaft. ...
  2. Fully Floating Axle Shafts. ...
  3. Three-Quarter Floating Axle Shafts.
Oct 27, 2020

What are 3 axles? ›

A tri-axle vehicle is a truck, tractor, or trailer with three axles grouped together at the rear. Tri-axle vehicles are primarily used to haul heavy loads.

What is the basic of coupling? ›

A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both.

What are the different types of coupling in connectors? ›

Threaded, bayonet, and push-pull are the three basic coupler styles commonly used for circular connectors.

What is a flex coupling? ›

A flexible coupling is used to connect two shafts, end-to-end in the same line, for two main purposes. The first purpose is to transmit power that is torque from one shaft to another, thereby causing both to rotate in unison, at the same RPM.

How many axles are there? ›

In a car, there are two different kinds of axles: the front axle and the rear axle. The front axle, which is in charge of turning the front wheels, is often referred to as the steering axle. The drive axle propels the car's wheels, and the axle that moves the car's wheels is frequently referred to as the rear axle.

What are the two basic types of axles? ›

Different Types of Axle

Typically, a car has two basic types of axles. One is called the Dead Axle that is present in a car to put up with the weight and does not rotate with the wheels. The other one is the Live Axle that is connected to the wheels and propels them.

Which of the following is a type of coupling? ›

Detailed Solution
Rigid CouplingFlexible Coupling
Most widely used rigid coupling is – Box / Muff / Sleeve coupling Split Muff / Clamp coupling Cast iron flange couplingMost widely used flexible coupling is – Oldham coupling (Parallel misalignment) Universal joint (Angular misalignment) Bushed pin type coupling.
1 more row
Apr 11, 2023

What are the two types of shaft coupling? ›

Couplings can be categorized as rigid or flexible types. Rigid coupling connects two shafts that are precisely aligned and handling high-torque loads while flexible couplings connects two shafts that are less precisely aligned and handling from low-torque to moderate-torque loads .

What is the type of shaft coupling? ›

The shaft coupling is the connecting element between the electric motor and the pump hydraulic system. Slip-free shaft couplings employed in centrifugal pumps are divided into rigid and flexible shaft couplings. Rigid shaft couplings are mainly used to connect perfectly aligned shafts.

What are the three types of coupling methods? ›

The different types of coupling are: Common-mode impedance (galvanic) coupling. Capacitive coupling. Inductive coupling.

Which type of coupling is used on vehicle? ›

The tire coupling is a flexible coupling used in the vehicle inspection as well, it is placed in the rollers that support the weight of the car, while making the test.

Which coupling is used on vehicle? ›

A fluid coupling or hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic or 'hydrokinetic' device used to transmit rotating mechanical power. It has been used in automobile transmissions as an alternative to a mechanical clutch.

What has 5 axles? ›

When fully attached to a trailer, a semi-truck technically has five axles.

What is a 5 axle vehicle? ›

Five-Axle Single-Trailer Trucks—All five-axle vehicles consisting of two units, one of which is a tractor or straight truck power unit. 10. Six or More Axle Single-Trailer Trucks—All vehicles with six or more axles consisting of two units, one of which is a tractor or straight truck power unit.

What is a number 42 axle? ›

#42 Spindle for 5,200-lb to 7,000-lb Trailer Axles - 2-1/4" Diameter.

How do I identify my axle? ›

To figure out exactly what axle you have, you can look for the Dana stamped bill of materials number. This stamped number can usually be found on the righthand side or on the longer axletube on the same side of the tube as the differential cover, facing the rear of the truck.

What connects the wheel to the axle? ›

The CV joint is what connects the axle and wheel. And it is the CV joint that must be maintained for the axles to do their job correctly. The CV joint is covered by a boot, a protective flexible cover.

What is the strongest axle material? ›

More specifically, how strong is the material being used to create the axle, does the size and profile of the shaft make a difference, and do the number and shape of the splines count. Steel is the best choice for making axleshafts because it is strong, very stiff, and is elastic in nature.

What is a 2 axle? ›

A double-axle travel trailer has two axles and two sets of wheels. Often the weight distribution across four wheels and tires instead of only two can mean your wheels, brakes, and tires last longer.

Are all axles the same? ›

It's important to note that all axles with similar spline counts are NOT necessarily the same. That's because the splines are machined with different pressure angles.

How many axles does a 4x4 have? ›

4WD. Four-wheel drive (4WD) refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market, the term generally refers to a system optimized for off-road driving conditions.

Can you explain the coupling with its type? ›

Coupling is the degree of interaction between two classes or functions that violates the principle of hiding information. The lower the coupling, the more modular a program is, which means that less code has to be changed when the program's functionality is altered later on.

What is coupling with example? ›

Example : If you change your shirt, then you are not forced to change your body – when you can do that, then you have loose coupling. When you can't do that, then you have tight coupling. The examples of Loose coupling are Interface, JMS.

What is common coupling examples? ›

Common coupling is one of the forms of coupling in which two or more modules share some global data such as global data structures. Different modules read from and write their data to a common global field that has some information regarding the operations to be performed is an example of common coupling.

What is a flanged coupling? ›

26 Oct 2021, posted by Admin. The purpose of a flange coupling is quite simple. It is a driving coupling between rotating shafts that consists of flanges, one of which is fixed at the end of each shaft. The two flanges bolted together with a ring set of bolts completes the drive connection.

What is pin and bush coupling? ›

Pin Bush Coupling is engineered from protected type of flange coupling. This type of coupling has pins which work as coupling bolts. Over the pins rubber or leather bushes are used. The pins are tightened by nuts with one of the flange and on the other flange kept loose.

What is HRC coupling? ›

The HRC coupling is a torsionally flexible, fail-safe and encapsulated claw coupling made of grey cast iron with an elastomer star. This star is the heart of the elastomer coupling. It transmits the torque and compensates for axial, radial and angular shaft misalignments.

What is a dead axle? ›

noun. : an axle that carries a road wheel but has no provision for driving it.

Is it Axel or axle? ›

An axel is a figure-skating jump named after the Norwegian skater Axel Paulsen (1855-1938). It does not need to be capitalized. An axle is a rounded shaft or rod that connects two wheels. Coincidentally, this word's origins are also Norwegian; it comes from the Old Norse öxull.

What is the full meaning of axle? ›

: a pin or shaft on or with which a wheel or pair of wheels revolves. b(1) : a fixed bar or beam with bearings at its ends on which wheels (as of a cart) revolve. (2) : the spindle of such a beam.

What is a floating axle? ›

A full-float axle is a housing type in which the axle does not carry the load of the vehicle and does not have the wheel bolt directly to it. Full-float axles bolt to a spindle, which ultimately drives the wheels. They can also be removed with the wheel still on the vehicle.

What is the stub axle? ›

A stub axle or stud axle is either one of two front axles in a rear-wheel drive vehicle, or one of the two rear axles in a front-wheel drive vehicle. In a rear wheel drive vehicle this axle is capable of angular movement about the kingpin for steering the vehicle.

How many axles are on a truck? ›

Trucks have at least 2 axles. These mechanical components are located at the front and rear of heavy trucks. Their purpose is to support the weight of the vehicle and maintain the space between the wheels.

What is universal type of coupling? ›

A universal joint (also called a universal coupling or U-joint) is a joint or coupling connecting rigid shafts whose axes are inclined to each other. It is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.

What is the difference between a coupler and a coupling? ›

A coupler is a device used to connect two pieces of equipment or two sections of pipe. A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together. Couplers are typically made from brass, steel, or plastic, while couplings are typically made from steel or iron.

What are the classification of shaft couplings? ›

However there are two main types of couplings (Fig 1) which are (i) rigid couplings, and (ii) flexible couplings. Rigid couplings are used for shafts having no misalignment. Since these couplings cannot absorb any misalignment the shafts to be connected by a rigid coupling must have good lateral and angular alignment.

What is a Hooke's coupling? ›

A universal or Hooke's coupling is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. The inclination of the two shafts may be constant, but in actual practice, it varies when the motion is transmitted from one shaft to another.

What are examples of coupler? ›

Coupler Definition
  • A person or thing that couples. ...
  • One that couples, especially a device for coupling two railroad cars. ...
  • A device connecting two organ keyboards so that they may be played together. ...
  • A device used to convert electronic information into audible sound signals for transmission over telephone lines.

What is the difference between flexible and rigid coupling? ›

Rigid couplings are used to connect two shafts that are aligned with each other. Flexible couplings are used to connect two shafts that are not aligned with each other. Flexible couplings are good for when the shafts are a little bit off, while rigid couplings can't tolerate any misalignment.


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Nathanael Baumbach

Last Updated: 13/06/2023

Views: 6255

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (55 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Nathanael Baumbach

Birthday: 1998-12-02

Address: Apt. 829 751 Glover View, West Orlando, IN 22436

Phone: +901025288581

Job: Internal IT Coordinator

Hobby: Gunsmithing, Motor sports, Flying, Skiing, Hooping, Lego building, Ice skating

Introduction: My name is Nathanael Baumbach, I am a fantastic, nice, victorious, brave, healthy, cute, glorious person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.